Acne is a skin disorder that occurs when hair follicles become clogged with oil and dead skin cells. It often results in comedones, blackheads, or pimples, and usually appears on the face, forehead, chest, upper back, and shoulders. Acne is most common in teenagers, although it affects people of all ages.

There are effective treatments, but acne can be persistent.


Possible symptoms include the following:


Closed comedones (clogged pores).


Open comedones (open pores)


Small red sensitive irregularities (papules).


Pimples (pustules), which are papules with pus at the tip.


Large, solid, painful bumps that are below the surface of the skin (nodules).


Painful, pus-filled bumps that are below the surface of the skin (cystic lesions)


There are six main factors that cause acne:

  • Excessive fat production
  • Stress
  • Birth Control Pills
  • Obstruction of hair follicles with fat and dead skin cells
  • Bacteria
  • Excess activity of one type of hormone (androgen)

Acne usually occurs on the face, forehead, chest, upper back and shoulders, mostly because these are the areas of skin where the majority of the oil-producing glands (sebaceous glands) are located. The hair follicles are connected to the sebaceous glands.

The wall of the follicle may bulge out and produce an open comedo. Or the plug may be open to the surface and then darken, producing a closed comedo. A blackhead may look like dirt stuck in the pores. But, in reality, the pore is full of bacteria and grease, so it darkens when exposed to the air.

Pimples are red spots that bulge, with a white center that forms when blocked hair follicles become inflamed or infected with bacteria. Blockages and inflammation that develop inside the hair follicles form cyst-like bumps under the surface of the skin.


Factors that can make acne worse


Androgens are hormones that increase in young people during puberty and cause the sebaceous glands to enlarge and produce more sebum. Hormonal changes related to pregnancy and oral contraceptive use may also affect sebum production. Also, low amounts of androgens circulate in women’s blood and can make acne worse.

Certain medications

Examples include drugs containing corticosteroids, testosterone or lithium.


Studies indicate that certain dietary factors, including low-fat milk and carbohydrate-rich foods (such as bread, bagels and chips), can make acne worse.


Stress can make acne worse.


Acne medications are useful in reducing the production of oils, accelerating the renewal of skin cells, fighting bacterial infection, or reducing inflammation, all of which prevent the formation of scars.

The treatment regimen that your doctor recommends will depend on your age, the type and severity of your acne, and your diagnosis. The affected skin may need to be washed and treated with medication twice a day for several weeks. Often, a combination of topical and oral medications is used.

Topical medications

Retinoids and retinoid-like drugs. They come in cream, gel and lotion. Retinoid medications are derived from vitamin A.

Antibiotics. What they do is kill excess bacteria in the skin and reduce redness.

Salicylic acid and azelaic acid. Azelaic acid is naturally found in whole grains and animal products. It has antibiotic properties.


Vitamin B5: It is indispensable for the proper functioning of the immune system, it also contributes to a refinement of the skin and a reduction in pore size. In addition, acne is caused by excess sebaceous secretions, which is also controlled by the consumption of pantothenic acid.

Vitamin B6: Acts regulating the excessive production of sebum. When you have a lot of natural oil on your skin, combined with the dirt that accumulates on your face, it stimulates the proliferation of pimples and comedones.

Vitamin B: Helps your body process energy from the food you eat. They also help form red blood cells

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